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UD. Jakarta Safety & Security

Fire Hydrant

Fire Hydrant System - Operating Principle

In a building, a fire hydrant system is a safety measure or emergency equipment needed in some buildings which consists of a series of components which when combined provide a source of water to help fire officers in a fire. In other words, the fire hydrant system is a supply of water with sufficient pressure and flow delivered through pipes throughout the building to a strategic valve network for fire fighting purposes. In some circumstances, the water from the reticulated fire hydrant system can also be shared with other safety measures such as automatic fire sprinkler systems or fire hose reels.

Fire hydrant system needed in the building to the level needed to facilitate the needs of the fire department;
Fire fighting operation; and
Building floor area; and

Fire hazard
The fire hydrant system is designed and installed in accordance with standards consisting of the following main components;

Water Supply & Storage
Water supply for fire hydrant systems can be lowered from reliable water sources; road electricity, static water supplies such as tanks or dams. Water storage must also include facilities for automatic additions (make-up water) due to losses from evaporation, leakage, periodic testing, and others. Capacity or volume of water supply or storage must also be calculated as part of the hydraulic.

Pipework & Valves
To direct water from its origin (supply) to its destination (hydrant valve) requires a series of interconnected pipes at the specified size. Control Valves are used in combination with pipes to directly control the flow of water.

Fire Brigade Booster
Booster assemblies provide attachment points to the fire brigade to provide additional water to the fire hydrant system in the event of an emergency. The location of the fire brigade amplifier must be chosen to ensure that it is easily accessible and provides protection to firefighters. Amplifiers are usually installed in cabinets that include details of pressure limitations and requirements for the fire hydrant system.

Pumpset
In some circumstances, where hydraulic analysis determines that the water supply is insufficient for building needs, one or more booster pumps are needed. The pump can consist of a combination of electric or compression ignition motor (diesel).

Hydrant, Hydrant Valve or Landing Valve & Coupling
The end point of the fire hydrant system is Hydrant (also known as Hydrant Valve, Landing Valve or Millcock) which is in a strategic location in all buildings in accordance with the provisions. The nominal diameter for the connection of the hydrant valve is 65mm. Connections for fire hoses vary according to the local fire authority. Simply put, the fire brigade uses a different hose connection. In this case, the Hydrant must also be equipped with a connection or clutch that is compatible with the local fire department. Attention must be given to ensuring that each fire hydrant is easily accessible and has sufficient permits to meet the requirements.

Layflat Fire Hose
Some buildings may also require as part of an approved design for the installation of additional equipment such as a fire hose. Layflat fire hoses made according to the standard are flexible hoses and nozzles that may be connected to the hydrant.

Block Plan
The planned block of the fire hydrant system is an indelible diagram that is installed in the booster cabinet, pump room and fire control room which describes the main features of the fire hydrant system including the location and dimensions of water supply, location & capacity of each water storage or tank, location & number of each valve, location of each pump, pump pressure & flow rate, location of the main electrical control room, location of all flammable storage areas, years of installation, installation of contractor names, highest fire hydrant height and lowest booster connection.

When designing the objectives of a specific hydrant system you must be satisfied. These performance objectives require hydraulic analysis to show the presence of sufficient pressure and water flow on the hydrant that has the least hydrant. The pressure and current requirements vary according to the classification of the building, floor area and fire sprinkler protection. Under normal circumstances, the fire system is pressurized with water ready for emergency use. When the hydrant valve is opened, the system experiences a decrease in water pressure. A decrease in water pressure is detected by a pressure switch which in turn turns on the booster pump, pulling water from the water supply to increase the water pressure on the system. The water from the hydrant is then directed through a hose to fire the nozzle which is then directed to the fire place.